Shopping with the Shocking Schiap

ELSA SCHIAPARELLI went from riches to rags and back again. Her signature Pink colour and perfume, ‘Shocking,’ were inspired by begonias, viewed from a pram in the grounds of her parents stunning Italian pallazzi. She spent a substantial living allowance; socialising in Europe and New York, so had to find ways to support herself and her daughter. And it just couldn’t be by designing a jumper and becoming a Surrealist.

Again and again Schiaparelli blazed new trails: she was the first conceptual designer, the first to do thematic collections, the first to produce fashion shows as spectacle and entertainment rather than glamorous business appointments. She was the first couturier to use man-made fabrics and to replace buttons with zippers, and the first designer of any kind to issue press releases. But more than anything else, she was the first to understand the power of marketing.

In 1933 Schiaparelli opened her own London salon and began featuring British woollen fabrics in her collections; tweeds and hand-knits, loving Scotland with its tartans, bonnets and tams.  This sourcing of British textiles was a practice taken up by clever creative descendants Jean Muir and Vivienne Westwood.  Her career prospered through her alliance with the British film and theatre industry and between 1933 and 1939 she designed costumes for 30 films and plays. 

By 1935 the business woman in Schiaparelli was flourishing.  She and her talented, American, public relations supremo, Hortense Macdonald, took a stand at the first French trade fair in Moscow. As sole representatives of French couture, they lined their booth with press-clippings printed on silk, with the floor covered in exclusive, Colcombet’s black ‘tree-bark,’ crepe with a fan-shaped display of international Fashion magazines.  Writing for a student pack, which accompanied the 2003/4 Philadelphia exhibition, curator Dilys Blum captures the excitement of the Art Deco era:

“Since 1935, Schiaparelli had been presenting thematic collections at her salon, theatrically staged with dramatic lighting, backdrops and music.  A fashion editor who regularly attended these events recalls that the front rows were filled with royalty, politicians, artists, film stars who pushed towards the models ‘as if it were rush hour’

The birth of the Cult of Cool

AFTER months of misery the Fashion industry usually fights back and there is delight in dressing up and going out.  Paris, with its years of austerity, rationing and separation, during WW2, was revitalised by Christian Dior, Art director, dilettante, Europe’s other famous Norman.

With four years of Nazi rule Paris, ‘city of lights,’ was dim, but after liberation by the American forces there was the discovery of be-bop. It swept the city and black Americans stayed on, rather than return to the segregated USA.

On the streets the cult of cool was about to be born, and women wanted a designer to help them shake off the ‘horrible overalls’ and the boxy shapes of war-time clothes. They wanted to look sexy and feminine. It was then, in February 1947, that 30, Avenue Montaigne would become the world headquarters of Fashion.

Half a century before the internet Christian Dior, who had spent much of the war dressing the wives of Nazi officers and French collaborators, revived pre-war looks for post-war customers targeted at Hollywood’s world wide audience. He created feminised ‘flower women,’ happy to turn their backs on careers and military uniforms.

NewLookDior’s New Look, in 1947, made every other dress look outmoded. There was an electric tension – ‘wasp waist of jacket, weight of skirt barely worn by human beings, real old fashioned corsets to create shape,’ in direct contrast to the 40s look.

Christian Dior’s publicity machine was so effective that in a Vogue feature, proposing numerous routes through Europe by car by inventive motorists, Dior was featured by the magazine rather in the way Alexandra Shulman writes of Victoria Beckham for Vogue UK, April 2008.

Dior’s New Look was very good for fabric manufacturers, and especially good for his sponsor, Marcell Bussac. The ‘Bar’ suit, famously photographed by Willy Maywald. With its padded, static jacket and its heavy 80lbs, long, black wool pleated skirt, depended for its sculptural form on the 19th century skills of the corset maker.   Coco Chanel said of her rival: “Christian Dior doesn’t dress women. He upholsters them”.

Dior became the ‘master of marketing;’ selling perfumes, and realising the ‘importance of the public identifying with the designer.’ Dior had his personal and business journeys mapped and followed by the Media, becoming the first celebrity couturier. Recognising the importance of trade between the House and buyers by 1948, he and his team include Cuba, Finland, Holland, Mexico, and Sweden in their contact lists. When Bettina Ballard, the journalist who was editor-in-chief of Vogue, America in the 1950s, heard that designs were being geared towards department store owners’ wives she said, “I would not put it past Dior!”

1.4 - dior 4

The recovery of the French Fashion industry was in the hands of Dior, who saved haute couture in the face of a ‘growing market of ready to wear, especially in the United States’. Paris was put into a position where it was also able to set the template for London couture and Fashion training. During the war there was the fear that American design would take over. So the Paris group, Chambre Syndicale, put together ‘Theatre de la Mode,’ a collection of dolls which were on display during the V&A exhibition in London. Said, to have been designed to raise funds for war victims they, really, were commissioned to raise the profile of Haute Couture.

VOTES FOR WOMEN

We’re at a turning point in politics. Three remarkable LABOUR MPS spoke on BBC 1 television yesterday. For the first time in ages I’m back to feeling optimistic.  Now, so, “What about the women?”

Angela

Angela Rayner told Andrew Marr of her reason for going for deputy leadership of the LABOUR Party.  She assured him it was to make best use of her practical personality! She then proceeded to show her complete grasp of LABOUR’s ideologies and its intentions to have all of us reach our true potential.

Rebecca

Andrew next entertained Rebecca Long Bailey, campaigning for the Labour party leadership position.  Sounding very ‘cabinet’ material, the Shadow Education Secretary,  made the crucial point that the Labour Party will raise up society; providing support for aspirational classes through well funded, targeted, Health Services, Social Care and Education. These ‘transformational policies’  would be put into practice through improving productivity and restoring our economy.

Holly

Next on Sunday, (16.02.20) on ‘Politics England,’ our own brave heart Holly Lynch, MP for Halifax. In flood torn Calderdale she represented all her own constituents in the town and those of Calder Valley.   “We now know that Storm Ciara brought flooding to over 500 residential properties in Calderdale, over 400 businesses, 8 schools, 2 care homes and caused a great deal of damage to a number of roads and highways infrastructure. Unlike in 2015 the Government has not committed to making recovery grants available for either businesses or residents, with the problems exacerbated by the Government’s chaotic reshuffle.”

As well as appearing on this morning’s, ‘Politics England’  Holly Lynch’s efforts to support the people of West Yorkshire, our MP submitted an application for an Urgent Question to the Secretary of State for DEFRA, following the floods which the Government converted to an Urgent Statement.  She writes, “I was deeply concerned that the then SoS wasn’t across the detail of the situation and didn’t commit to any central Government funding towards Calderdale’s recovery, only reiterating what funding had already been committed in Flood defences. She agreed to a meeting but having followed her out of the chamber to arrange the details, it became clear, that even, she didn’t think she would still be in the job come the end of the week.”

Holly  is committed to continue her campaign to rescue the devastated people of Calderdale, and will be outlining a number of asks to George Eustice, Theresa Villiers,’ successor.